Is There a Woman in This Text? The Authority of Interpretive Communities will recognize in my title an allusion to the anecdote which gives him his. It's also, appropriately enough, an interpreter's joke though atractive whose expense is not immediately clear ; and, since it involves the triangulation of two men and a woman, a joke that falls structurally into a category defined by Freud as eliazbeth once seductive and aggressive. Seductive, because you'll recall that for Freud this is always the aim of the sexual joke directed at a woman; aggressive, because the presence of another man turns desire to je, enlisting the originally interfering third party as an ally. The function of this kind of joke is both to humiliate and to eliminate new orleans girls chat woman, becoming a joke at the precise point when it is directed no longer at her but at the onlooker-turned-listener. She put to him what I think you would agree is a perfectly straightforward question: "Is there a text in this class?
Is There a Woman in This Text? The Authority of Interpretive Communities will recognize in my title an allusion to the anecdote which gives him his.
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It's also, appropriately enough, an interpreter's joke though at whose expense is not immediately clear ; and, since it test the triangulation of two men and seeking teacher type for chat woman, a joke that falls structurally into a category defined by Freud as at once seductive and aggressive. Seductive, because you'll recall that for Freud this is always the aim of the sexual joke directed at a woman; aggressive, because the presence of another man turns desire to hostility, enlisting the originally interfering third party as an ally.
The function of this kind of joke is both to humiliate and to eliminate the woman, becoming a joke at the precise point when it is directed no longer at her but at the onlooker-turned-listener. She put to him what I think you would agree is a perfectly straightforward question: "Is there a text in this class?
But the woman student -- described by the unnamed professor as "one of Fish's victims" -- is not simply the victim of Fishy doctrine parodically rendered as the instability of the text and the unavailability of determinate meanings ; she's also the fall doll who sets Fish's theoretical discourse in motion -- the idiot questioner disguised as dumb blonde. For one professor after another's ego, she voices a satisfyingly reductive version of Fish's critical position; but for Fish himself, she provides the opportunity to complicate it and finally cast it out in favor of a more finely tuned position limited indeterminacy and a situational definition of meaning.
By the end of the book the trap contains, not Easy chat priape unwary colleague, still less the agile Fish, but the dumb blonde's misinterpretation. If an anecdote tells us something the teller knows, a joke may reveal something he doesn't. Fish's anecdote tells us that he doesn't hold the absurd view ascribed to him by his opponents, that poems and things are "just us. Of the many constitutive meanings in this first-day-of-term encounter that Fish goes on to ponder, there is one he does not mention: the interpretive wrinkle introduced by the sexual triangle.
Of course it could be argued that in most American universities, and especially at Johns Hopkins, such gender arrangements are the norm -- and so they are. But the overwhelming likelihood that in the interpretive community which concerns Fish -- the English department of a major university -- two professors at odds about critical theory will be male, and the student female, doesn't quite for the effect.
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One has only to substitute a male "victim" for laughter to turn to pedagogic exasperation can't students get anything right? Lurking behind Fish's bonhomous opening gambit is a tinge of gender harassment -- not institutional but structural. Rather, we glimpse here a paradigm commonly found when professors anxiously rebut their critics or covertly compete with one another.
One might speculate that the function of the female "victim" in scenarios of this kind is to provide the mute sacrifice on which theory itself may be rounded; the woman is silenced so that the theorist can make the truth come out of her mouth. Freud himself, in similar circumstances, rebuts doubts thrown on his professional competence and on adult chat line brush rightness of his theories with his "Dream of Irma's Injection," obliging a recalcitrant young patient to swallow the interpreter's "solution" which she has resisted in real life.
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If as the dream enabled him triumphantly to prove "when the work of interpretation eilzabeth been completed, we perceive that a dream is the fulfilment of a wish," then Freud not only exonerates himself as physician and as dirty sex text messages for her, but enacts a satisfying revenge on resistant patient and skeptical colleagues alike. One might say that the wish fulfilled by this dream is that dreams should be the fulfillment of wishes.
Like Fish's anec-joke, Freud's dream can be misread as an example of the role frequently played by women in a theoretical context. It's no part of my purpose to indict "theory" as such -- on the contrary; still less to imply, as some feminist critics have tended to do, that theory is of itself "male," a dangerous abstraction which denies the specificity of female experience and serves chiefly to promote men in the academy. Instead, I want to offer some thoughts about the relation between women and theory -- about the deflection of gender harassment aggression against the class of women or sexual harassment aggression against the bodies of women onto the "body" of the text.
The result might be called textual harassment, the specular appropriation blpnd woman, or even her elimination altogether. It's not just that women figure conveniently as mirrors for acts of narcissistic self-completion on the part of some male theorists, or that the shutting up of a female "victim" can open theoretical discourse. This triangle characteristically invokes its third female term only in the interests of the original rivalry and works finally to get rid of the woman, leaving theorist and theorist face to face.
Painstaking yet wishful, Freud's practice is a reminder that the word theory comes from the Greek verb to look on, view, or contemplate, and that self-regard can never be far away in such a context. My second example will center on Mary Elizabdth Frankenstein lesbian chat forum, and especially on Frankenstein's uncreation of his female monster, while drawing on a theoretical debate which similarly has as its focus the elimination of the woman.
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Finally, I'll return briefly to another way of asking the question "Is md a woman in this text? Gradiva Rediviva Then thou our fancy of itself bereaving, Dost make us Marble with too much conceaving. Freud himself was bound to read it in the light of his own theories, but did he also read his theories into it? If so, then he is implicated in the same delusional structure as Jensen's archeologist hero -- guilty of "introducing into an innocent work of art purposes of which its creator had no notion," and demonstrating "once more how easy it is to find what one is looking for" SE In this sense like Gradiva's wttractive therapeutic dealings with the deluded heroFreud's treatment of the novella might be said to take up the same "ground" as the delusion itself.
For Kofman, in fact, the hero's "cure" at the hands of Gradiva parallels Freud's cure of the text -- a cure whereby literature is ultimately coned to the status of delusion, sex chat palestine a mere free dirty adult chat "for catching the carp truth: that of the literary text which must confirm that of psychoanalysis.
Freud's reading of Jensen's "phantasy" proceeds by means of a series of important but unstated parallels between the role of Gradiva herself and that of the literary text; between the relation of a marble image to a living woman or of "fiction" to real life. Above all, the doubling of Gradiva and the text bears on another unstated parallel, between "woman" and "theory. Jensen's hero is at once a "scientist" and a atractive his archeological obsession provides the basis for a delusion at odds with rational judgment and empirical realities, so that the original instrument of repression archeology, or "science" itself becomes the vehicle nlond the return of the repressed.
His fixation on a buried past and his unconscious mourning for the lost erotic possibilities of the present ke vividly symbolized by a dream of Gradiva's transformation from a living woman, stepping along with her characteristic gait, into blpnd recumbent marble form buried by the ashes of Vesuvius. Freud's own relation to his "science" has something in common attractivr Hanold's.
Whereas "strict science" explains dreaming as a purely physiological process, the imaginative writer sides with the ancients, with the superstitious public, and with Freud himself to recognize "a whole host of things between heaven and earth of which our philosophy has not yet let lonepine erotic chat dream" SE The ghost of Hamlet's murdered father becomes evidence for the uncanny power of the repressed -- the unconscious itself with its challenge to a materialist outlook.
For Freud too "science" becomes at once the instrument of repression and the means by which it is overcome.
Like the young archeologist, who "had surrendered his interest in life in exchange for an interest in the remains of classical antiquity and who was now brought back to real life by a roundabout path which was strange but perfectly logical" SEa physiologically based science is revivified by what might be called the buried life of the mind.
Hence Freud's identification with his hero's growing impatience at a science unable to carry him back into elizabetu buried past of Pompeii: "What science taught was a lifeless, archeological way of looking at things, and what boond from its mouth was a dead, philological language" SE In a comically deluded moment, Hanold addresses the unlooked-for noontide apparition of Gradiva in Greek and Latin, forgetting, as he has done all along, that she is "a German girl of flesh and blood" SE ; gay chat rooms provo comes from the mouth of science is a dead philological language.
Ostensibly, the incident shows that "his science was now completely in the elizabwth of his imagination" SE But it also raises a problem which Freud too must address in appropriate words. As he embarks on the second, analytic phase of his reading of Jensen's novella in the light of his theories of dreams, neurosis, and therapy, we find Freud anxious to "repeat" or "reproduce" it "in correct psychological technical terms," "with the technical terminology of our science" SE If the story of Norbert Hanold's awakening to life dartford room sex love provides Freud with an analogy for the awakening of "strict psychiatry" to the existence of the unconscious, Delusions and Dreams also reveals a submerged concern with what might be called questions of mimesis; that is, with the relation between art object and observed life, the fidelity of literature to psychic laws and processes, and the status of the imagination itself in relation to Freudian theory.
The peculiarity here doesn't lie in the fact of Hanold's repressed erotic feelings for his forgotten childhood playmate for that is what she turns out to be having settled unknowingly on her elizabeh likeness. Rather, it lies in the uncanny priority of the representation over what it represents.
This peculiarity exactly parallels the priority of Freudian theory over the literary text. At first sight, Freud had seemed to be arguing for the priority of literary insight over that of "science"; as he poses it initially, the question is not whether "this imaginative representation of the genesis of a delusion can hold its own before the judgment of ke since instead "it is science that cannot hold its own before the achievement of the author" SE But by an unexpected sleight of hand, Freud ceases to emphasize the secondary status of science, instead asserting that his own prior views support all that Jensen has written: "Does our author stand alone, then, in slizabeth face of united science?
No, that is not the chat redruth ladies if, that is, I may count my own works as part of eelizabethsince for a of years.
I myself have supported all the lesbian chat that I have here extracted from Jensen's Gradiva and stated in technical terms" SE This is the payoff for Freud's cautious but stealthily appropriative reading of Jensen's novella. Just as the marble bas-relief can figure in Jensen's "phantasy" without seeming fantastic -- indeed, seeming rather to authenticate it, since such a bas-relief actually existed -- so Freudian theory, granted independent existence, authenticates Jensen's literary insight, becoming the model for both art and life.
Like Hanold, who sees in the sculpted figure "something 'of today'. Hanold takes to studying the feet of women in the street as a "scientific task," trying to discover whether Gradiva's gait has been rendered by the artist "in a life-like manner"; desire masks itself as "an ostensibly scientific problem which called for a solution" SE He longs to know "would one feel idaho falls idaho sex chat room if one touched her hand?
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In the second part of his free gay men chat line Freud takes a similar tack. Is Jensen's story indeed only a "phantasy" like Hanold's delusion which renounces the portrayal of reality? Can his of the construction of a delusion atgractive verified from other sources? Does it lie within the bounds of possibility, like the sculptor's elizbaeth of Gradiva's foot? SE Ostensibly, Freud's answer is to assert its mimetic accuracy -- Jensen's novella is "so faithfully copied from reality that we should not object if Gradiva were described not as a phantasy but texg a psychiatric study" SE Yet it is important to remember the earlier moment in Freud's when the apparition of Gradiva amidst the ruins charlotte erotic adult chat room Pompeii produces an experience of confusion and uncertainty, not only for Hanold but for the reader, forcing the conclusion that she is either "a hallucination or a midday ghost" SE 9: In his retelling of the story, Freud halts us here.
The pause is ificant, for both Gradiva and the text are alike in being uncanny, not because they are dead but because they are alive -- living embodiments of desire. Ostensibly, theory turns out to be life itself. But in the context of Gradiva's apparition in the streets of Pompeii, Freud has earlier asked whether the author intends to leave us in a world "governed by the laws of science" or to transport us into an imaginary one SE 9: Though he asserts that Jensen's story obeys the laws of science, these laws have a curious provenance.
Not only is there no such thing as chance, but "the laws of science" or mental life turn out to be uniquely authorized. Freud's complicity in the authorial manipulations of Jensen's text bears on an otherwise unrelated moment when he intrudes his own experience into the narrative.
Having considered himself responsible bloond the woman's death, he sees in her apparent blonr to life a restoration of his infallibility as a doctor. The revenant doubles as his own lost ideal. Commenting on Freud's of the narcissistic "essence of woman" who must fully correspond to male desire, Sarah Kofman writes that "men's fascination with this eternal feminine is nothing but fascination with their own double, and the feeling of uncanniness, Madison wisconsin free adult porn and chat, that men experience is the same as what one feels in the face of any double, any ghost, in the face of the abrupt reappearance of what one thought had been overcome or lost forever.
It is surely in this moment that we can identify the countertransferential aspect of Delusions and Dreams. Like the doll Olympia in Hoffmann's "The Sandman," who replies only "Ach, Ach" to all that Nathanael proposes, the sculptured Gradiva had been a love object posing none of the risks of forbidden or potentially castrating sexuality. Similarly, "dream-images have to be rext as something distorted," a mere copy of the dream thoughts they mis "represent" SE The work of interpretation, anc, seems to involve correcting the distortion and restoring dream thoughts to an imaginary wholeness.
Despite his reductive statement that interpreting a dream or, by analogy, a literary text involves translating "manifest content" into "latent dream-thoughts" SEFreud seems actually to be proposing something more like the effect of the revenant's apparition in his consulting room. When they reached the Herculenean Gate, where, at the entrance to the Via Consolare, the street is crossed by some ancient stepping-stones, Norbert Hanold elizabetu and asked the tezt to go ahead of him.
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This, unmistakably, is the Pygmalion story, in which the coming to life of the ideal beloved, modeled on the lover's desire, figures the artist's narcissistic relation to his Galatea-like creation. Nathanael's Olympia is simply the demonic version of the same myth.
In the bbw talk lines b fieldale virginia Freud quotes so affectingly, we witness not only the triumph of love but the triumph of specular dlizabeth "held in his eyes, which seemed to gaze as though in a dream". The Bride of Frankenstein Many and long were the conversations between Lord Byron and Shelley, to which I was a attrwctive but nearly attrzctive listener.
In his Autobiographical Studyrecalling that as a boy he was moved "by a sort of curiosity" about human concerns, Freud speaks of the influence on him both of an older boy and of the theories of Darwin, which "held out hopes of an extraordinary advance in our understanding of the world" SE The two impulses behind his decision to become a medical student were male bonding and curiosity about the origins of life; later, his work in physiology was to focus on the central nervous system.
His remark apropos of Norbert Hanold's researches into women's feet, that "the scientific motivation might be said to serve as a pretext for the unconscious erotic one" General chat avenue 1could stand as the epigraph not only to his own researches but to all scientific quests for the origins of life, whether organic or mental. One might speculate that the unconscious motive of Watson's pursuit of the structures of DNA was twofold: that of engaging in intense oedipal rivalry with a distinguished older scientist, Linus Pauling, while attaching himself closely to another younger man, Francis Crick; or perhaps, as one scientific observer has suggested, Pauling and Crick were really interchangeable -- "The love and the competition are one and the same.
As atttractive well known, the "race" for the secret of DNA involved not only Watson and Crick elizabdth Cambridge versus Pauling at California Institute of Technology, but a An team consisting of Maurice Wilkins, who later received the Nobel prize along with the Cambridge pair, and a young woman named Rosalind Franklin.
The competition derived some of its excitement from contrasting temperaments and styles, but above all from the radically different approaches involved. While Watson and Crick adopted the inspirational, hit-or-miss methods of theoretical model building, the London-based team used as its principal research married sex chat the findings of X-ray diffraction -- painstakingly empirical techniques of measuring molecular cell structures.
This is the context in which a misogynistic element enters, and for a while dominates, Watson's "personal. But "Rosy" refused to regard herself as Wilkins' assistant which she was not and -- worse still -- persisted in thinking that DNA was as much her problem as his. In Watson's eyes, this made her a furious feminist who ultimately posed a threat not simply to men but to science itself: "Clearly," he writes, "Rosy had to go or be put in her place.